The GSE journal was, by the decision of the Council for Science, Research and Innovation after an update in 2010, added to the list of peer reviewed periodicals published in the Czech Republic
It was only very recently that recycled concrete has also started to be used in water management primarily as a sorbent or reagent. Important factors influencing its use include mainly its origin, chemical, physical and mechanical characteristics. Adsorption kinetics was measured experimentally (Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm); and efficiency, values of adsorption capacity and changes of water chemical reactions due to added recycled concrete were found. Phosphates were removed either from standard solutions or from surface water.
Need for a Marine Spatial Data Infrastructure (MSDI) as a component of a National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) is widely recognized. An MSDI is relevant not only for hydrographers and government planners, but also for many other sectors which takes interest in marine spatial data, whether they are data users, data providers, or data managers. An MSDI encompasses marine and coastal geographic and business information. For efficient use of Marine Spatial Data, it is necessary to ensure its valid and accessible distribution. A geoportal is a specialized web portal for sharing spatial information at different levels over the Internet. This paper re-examines the implementation of an MSDI and what it means for data custodians and end users. Several geoportals are reviewed (German and Australian) to determine their web services functionality, capabilities and the scope to which they support the sharing and reuse of Marine Spatial Data to assist the development of the Croatian MSDI Geoportal. This framework provides a context for better understanding the information bases on spatial data standards and a tool for evaluation of MSDI dissemination – Geoportal.
Construction of a sewer system on a flat area is characterized by a large number of pumping stations (PS), which implies the probability of occurrence of technical problems and increases operational costs. The article focuses on drainage methods for municipalities situated on a flat area where it is necessary to build up a large number of pumping stations. Problems occur in case of multiple serial, parallel or combined connections of PSs. Energy costs can outweigh other costs, especially if the PS runs more than 2000 hours per year (Wilson et al., 2010). It has been shown that there is a large technical and economic potential for energy savings in sewage pumping. The pumping of waste waters in Slovakia is mostly based on the START-STOP method. This means that the pumps operate at all times at full power. In practice, we can also meet with oversizing of pumps. These and other facts lead to increased power consumption.
Also rainwater infiltration and “black” stormwater connections belong to significant present problems in sewer system operation. Large amounts of storm water in a sewerage PS lead to increasing intensity of waste-water pumping, which is reflected in increasing operational costs.
Optimization of such sewer system is based on mathematical modelling and was implemented in the “Ivanka pri Dunaji” municipality, close to Bratislava – the capital of Slovakia where the above mentioned problems in wastewater discharge cause considerable operating costs and inefficient performance of the system as a whole for a long time. Due to the enormous houses development, the system is inadequately loaded by rain waters as well. Also poor discipline of property owners contributes to the inauspicious situation to a great extent. Despite a ban of connections, paved areas are drained into the sewage system very often. The identification of such connections is very problematic with regard to ownership rights. Rain waters in sewages can degrade the quality of wastewaters, increase operating costs of pumping and reduce system life cycle. It was demonstrated by mathematical modelling that with the use of information technologies, it is possible to make the existing sewerage systems more effective or propose a new system of pumping and discharging waste waters.
Ammonia nitrogen is the primary product of the decomposition of plant and animal organic nitrogenous materials. Ammonium salts are part of some nitrogen fertilizers and are getting into ground and surface waters from agricultural areas. Secondary ammonium compounds can be formed directly in waters by reducing nitrates. This article is focused just on removing ammonia from drinking water, while the current research emphasizes the use of natural materials, especially for the removal of inorganic contaminants from water. The aim of this work consists in verifying the possibility of using natural filter materials - zeolites in ammonia removal and other filter materials, verify sorption (ion exchange) properties and efficiency of available types of materials under laboratory conditions.
This paper focuses on increasing quantities of digestate, a final product of anaerobic digestion, in biogas stations being built as alternative sources of energy. The potential use of digestate is limited due to its rather specific physical properties. This paper presents current approaches to digestate and digestate management. The objective is to compare the properties of digestate and the products of its separation via centrifuging, i.e. the liquid phase known as digestate liquor, and the solid phase referred to as digestate fibre. Its focus is mainly laid on techniques for dewatering digestate in low-solid anaerobic processes only, which have been tested for the effectiveness of the basic physical and chemical methods including their combinations. The measured results show that the use of coagulants and flocculants for this purpose would be very problematic in practice with regard to their high consumption as well as the need to input other elements into the process.
External corrosion, which depends on environmental and operating conditions, is the main cause of structural deterioration of all metallic mains. Internal corrosion, on the other hand, can cause significant functional (hydraulic, water quality) deterioration within a distribution system. This work deals with the corrosion of water pipes which greatly affects the durability and failure rate of water systems. The test is evaluated in accordance with STN 75 7151 and ASTM D2688-11. The corrosion tests were carried out on raw and treated water at the water treatment plant in Jakubany.
The paper highlights the importance of successful financial performance for companies, and provides for a brief review of foreign expert opinions on the most important factors that influence the financial performance of enterprises. Linear and quadratic discriminate analyses and a logistic regression analysis were applied to a sample file of 233 annual data from 3 countries (Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Ukraine) for a period of 2008-2012 concerning quarries extracting building materials. These methods provided for distributing the sample file quarries into two classes of profitable and loss-making enterprises. Their financial performance had been known, which enabled to assess the classification accuracy of individual method applications. The average classification accuracy was about 86% and there were no significant differences in the specific method applications. The linear discriminate analysis calculations are the simplest ones in comparison with two other applied methods. The linear discriminate analysis also made possible to identify the most influential discriminators that contributed to the classification into the specific groups. In case of our investigation, prices per production unit, direct variable costs, and ratio of fixed costs to total costs were the most important factors of influence. The factors, if analysed, can provide for prediction of financial performance of quarries in future.
Leaf area index (LAI) can be measured either directly, using destructive methods, or indirectly using optical methods that are based on the tight relationship between LAI and canopy light transmittance. Third, innovative approach for LAI measuring is usage of remote sensing data, especially airborne laser scanning (ALS) data shows itself as a advisable source for purposes of LAI modelling in large areas. Until now there has been very little research to compare LAI estimated by the two different approaches. Indirect measurements of LAI using hemispherical photography are based on the transmission of solar radiation through the vegetation. It can thus be assumed that the same is true for the penetration of LiDAR laser beams through the vegetation canopy. In this study we use ALS based LiDAR penetration index (LPI) and ground based measurement of LAI obtained from hemispherical photographs as a reference in-situ method. Several regression models describing the corellation LAI and LPI were developed with various coefficients of determination ranging up to 0,81. All models were validated and based on the tests performed, no errors were drawn that would affect their credibility.
In this paper, the geometrical characteristics of Pléiades 1A satellite imagery (both single and stereo) are analysed. At first the process of digital surface model (DSM) extraction from a Pléiades 1A stereo pair is described and analysed. After that geometric an accuracy of imagery, orthorectified using the extracted DSM and using the SRTM (Shuttle radar topographic mission) was analysed. The Pléiades 1A stereo pair was acquired on October 22, 2012 from the same orbital pass over an urban zone (Kiev, Ukraine). The study area is heterogeneous: there are both built-up and flat areas. The iImage orientation, DSM extraction and orthorectified images generation were performed using the PCI Geomatica 2013 software. The results showed that a strong, positive correlation between reference-derived elevations and DSM-derived elevations can be observed, and the orthorectified image accuracy, generated using that DSM, approximately equal to 1 m can be achieved using a bias compensation sensor model. Different sensor models were used for orthorectification using the SRTM. In this case, the geometric accuracy is а function of a chosen sensor model and a number of ground control points (GCP).
Vermiculite (Ver) enriched with silver and copper was used as nanofiller to the polyethylene (PE) matrix. Specifically, the low density polyethylene (LDPE) was chosen as a matrix. The samples Ver-Ag,Cu were prepared by shaking of Ver with the aqueous solutions of silver and copper nitrate. The mixtures of the Ver nanofillers and PE were homogenized by melt compounding technique and further thin plates were pressed from stiff matter of PE with Ver nanofiller. The exfoliation of the powdery Ver nanofillers in PE matrix was characterized by the X-ray diffraction analysis of thin plates. Distribution of Ver nanofiller in PE matrix was observed by Light microscopy. The reinforcing effect of nanofillers onto PE matrix was studied by creep experiment. Antibacterial activity of powder Ver-Ag,Cu samples and surfaces of PE/Ver-Ag,Cu samples was tested on the Gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecalis. All tested PE/Ver-Ag,Cu surfaces showed good antibacterial behaviour after 24 h in comparison to pure PE. The number of colonies decreased from the countless number to several hundred colonies.
Nitrogen and phosphorus belong to most important biogenic macro elements and both are required for the growth of microorganisms. Sewage waste waters and industrial waste waters from nitrogen production are important sources of organic and inorganic nitrogen compounds in water. Surface water predominantly contains nitrogen in a form of ammonium cations (NH4+). This knowledge could be used in waste water treatment. The paper deals with a potential application of ozonation in waste water treatment to treat waste water polluted with excessive amounts of organic compounds, primarily containing nitrogen and its subsequent co-application with advanced oxidation processes (AOPs).
The present article deals with three-variant processing and finding estimates of unknown parameters in a geodetic network by the technology of global navigation satellite systems in 2004, 2008 and 2011. The assessment of the impact of a used method of adjustment on the estimation of parameters of the first and second order of the geodetic network and the presentation of results of a deformation analysis with graphical visualisation of individual processing and analyses are the objectives of this paper. An LSM method and robust M-estimates according to Huber and Hampel were used for the processing and adjustment of observations. All three processing methods showed a displacement of point No. 5005 in the epoch 04-08 in the analysis of the stability of points, which is also confirmed by graphical visualisations using confidence error ellipsoids.
The paper is focused on the study of two-dimensional magnetic field distribution used for an analysis of samples containing magnetically active films by means of the Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) method. The design of a proposed electromagnet and the magnetic field model computation are presented together with the results obtained from magnetic field distribution measurement. The ATR method can provide information about a thin film thickness, refractive index, and attenuation in addition to the perfunctory coupling of an optical wave into and off a waveguide. The prism coupling conditions are determined for magnetic structures with induced anisotropy.
The prism – a film coupler is located in the central cavity of a magnetic yoke. By current switching in the coils, we can change the amplitude and magnetic field direction in order to modulate the induced anisotropy in a thin film with magnetic ordering. By the in-plane modulation of the magnetization direction in the samples, we can change the rotation and elasticity of outgoing light.
The effect of fire generated smoke rollback in underground mines can be dangerous and a potentially fatal threat to all who are endangered by the fire. Three critical stages in the process of smoke rollback are 3D local phenomena that can be analysed by CFD software simulations. With the help of a 3D-CFD analysis we can observe the critical stages of smoke rollback and their reaction to a ventilation network. The CFD provides the opportunity to expand the range of prediction of smoke spread for a wide spectrum of airflows, fire intensities, mine-section inclinations and layouts. The paper deals with the possibilities for simulating the smoke rollback effect in underground mines using the CFD software. For the purposes of this research paper, the PyroSim software from the company Thunderhead Engineering was used to create three different CFD fire scenarios and then observe the critical stages of smoke rollback effects.
The documentation of cultural heritage is an essential part of appropriate care of historical monuments, representing a part of our history. At present, it represents the current issue, for which considerable funds are being spent, as well as for the documentation of immovable historical monuments in a form of castle ruins, among the others. Non-contact surveying technologies – terrestrial laser scanning and digital photogrammetry belong to the most commonly used technologies, by which suitable documentation can be obtained, however their use may be very costly. In recent years, various types of software products and web services based on the SfM (or MVS) method and developed as open-source software, or as a freely available and free service, relying on the basic principles of photogrammetry and computer vision, have started to get into the spotlight. By using the services and software, acquired digital images of a given object can be processed into a point cloud, serving directly as a final output or as a basis for further processing. The aim of this paper, based on images of various objects of the Slanec castle ruins obtained by the DSLR Pentax K5, is to assess the suitability of different types of open-source and free software and free web services and their reliability in terms of surface reconstruction and photo-texture quality for the purposes of castle ruins documentation.
Gamma radioactivity of an 8 mm thick ice layer formed after a modest rain on 21 January 2013 in the VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava campus was analyzed and gamma-ray emissions from primordial 40K have been found. Cosmogenic 7Be produced mainly in galactic cosmic-ray spallation processes on atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen and 226Ra, 235U and 137Cs have been also observed.
This article discusses the traditional irrigation system in the oases of Touat, Gourara and Tidikelt. Since centuries, farmers use the system of foggaras for irrigation of palm groves and gardens.
The results obtained following the inquiries and investigations carried out on the sites of foggaras, showed that since the eighties, drilling works multiplied in the oases of Touat, Gourara and Tidikelt. However, despite the application of these new techniques of water catchment, farmers still irrigate their gardens by traditional methods. For social, economic and environmental problems, foggaras degrade more and more; 50% of the foggaras decayed. Currently, the discharge of foggaras in service greatly diminished. The adoption of modern catchment techniques entails to the lowering of the water table.
This paper, in a form of a case study, deals with the influence of detailed basin schematization on the results of rainfall-runoff modelling. Three schematizations with dissimilar details were created for the study area and subsequently a rainfall-runoff simulation was carried out by means of the HEC-HMS programme for a precipitation event. Resulting hydrographs were further compared with a real discharge measured in the closing profile of the model basin. The model basin is the Lubina River basin occupying c. 160 km2, characterized by significant altitudinal articulation and variable land use, so the comparison was not limited to one landscape type. The study also includes statistical evaluation of model accuracy by means of the Nash-Sutcliffe method. Finally, the results are discussed as well as probable reasons for the behaviour of the models.
The present study investigates mercury contamination of soil, groundwater, surface water, vegetation and food commodities (fruit, vegetable, mushroom, and fish) close to the abandoned Hg deposit in Malachov, Central Slovakia. The soil was classified as cambi-soil (rendzina). Maximum concentrations of Hg (44.24 ppm) were found in the soil from the area nearby old mining activities in the Veľká Studňa locality. In the groundwater, 0.84 μg.L-1, and in the surface water, even 394 μg.L-1 of Hg content was found. Also plant tissues and mushrooms are Hg-contaminated (in the root of Salix fragilis, the Hg content was 22 mg.kg-1). The Hg concentration decreases in general in the following order: root, branch/stem, and leaf/needle. In the food commodities, the Hg content does not exceed the Slovak law limits. The Hg content in trout muscle (from the local Malachovský brook) is 252 μg.kg-1 and in liver 402 μg.kg-1.
The calculation of an AMD formation potential (neutralisation potential, total acidity production, net neutralisation potential) is discussed as well. The value of the total acidity production potential (sensu Sobek et al., 1978) is low (1.562 – 3.125; with exception of a single sample, in which it increased to 9.375). On the other hand, the abundant presence of dolomite rocks causes a high neutralization potential value (up to 812.84). This result suggests that the assumption of the AMD production is excluded and the environmental risk from this viewpoint might be neglected.
In general, air quality is determined from the concentrations of pollutants in ambient air. Air quality criteria (limit and target values, margin of tolerances, upper and lower assessment thresholds) are based on the current legislative framework. In Slovakia, the air quality criteria are imposed by Decree No 360/2010 Coll, on air quality, of the Ministry of Environment. In relation to the implemented measurements, it is necessary to choose effective tools needed for the pre-processing and post-processing of overall air quality assessment. The article aims at applying suitable GIS tools in the assessment process of air quality in the Košice agglomeration for the selected period 2008-2010. In the overall assessment of the area in question, the processing of information on emissions declared as particulate matter (PM) was considered in terms of a conservative approach to the assessment of air quality for PM10. For the assessment, the yearbooks and reports on air quality in Slovakia in 2008-2010 of the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (SHMI) and professional publications were used.
The present article focuses on the importance of making investment decisions and its long-term effect on the economy of companies. It presents a specific investment in the recovery of rescue equipment used for interventions in the irrespirable or deleterious environment on an example of the company HBZS, a.s. The objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of the investment project using static methods in relation to setting an optimal price level for leasing the equipment. The optimization of such setting is examined in terms of the economic lifetime of relevant tangible fixed assets.
The present article summarizes the progress and results of geodetic works during the construction of a geodetic network inside the Dobšinská Ice Cave underground space to monitor temporal and spatial changes in its ice filling. In order to objectively evaluate the changes, parameter estimations of the first- and second-order of the geodetic network from the set of field geodetic measurements were provided, and a robust analysis of the network was applied in terms of the assessment of impacts of potential outlier measurements on the network geometry.
The beginnings of research and use of results in the area of indicator gas application for early detection of spontaneous combustion of coal in China comes from the sixties of the last century. The significant development occurred in the nineties, when the program “Characteristics of the adsorption of coal oxygen and its application in the prevention of mine fires” had been completed. The paper briefly describes an overview of the historical development, achievements, experimental methods, laboratory equipment, legislation, and the outlook for the use of indicator gases of coal spontaneous combustion in China.