2004, Volume L, No.1
  • Fifty Years´ History of the Transactions of the VŠB – Technical University Ostrava at the Faculty of Mining and Geology

    Zdeněk Vašíček

    Fifty years ago the first issue of the first volume of a professional journal of pedagogical and research workers of Vysoká škola báňská (Institute of Mining and Metallurgy of Ostrava), present VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, was published under the title „Transactions of the VŠB in Ostrava“. The Transactions have already been published continuously for fifty years. Thus this year (2004) it is just the 50th anniversary volume that appears. In the course of the fifty years history the Transactions have undergone many changes. The most significant of them are mentioned in the submitted contribution. The first 11 volumes were issued as university-wide journals; after particular contributions were, however, always presented the branch of science to which those contributions belonged. In the 12th volume, the Transactions were divided into separate specialised series representing the faculties. Similarly to the first volumes, the Transactions were still run by the University Editorial Board. The Faculty of Mining and Geology issued the Mining and Geological Series. Specific issues of the reviewed journal in the Mining and Geological Series were usually divided into issues having prevailingly mining contents and those orientated towards geology. After declining publishing activity in the year 1995, at the end of the year 1997 a new, purely Faculty’s Executive Editorial Board was established that launched a new era in the edition of the Mining and Geological Series. The journal of the Mining and Geological Series got a new format, a new wrapper and also the present title „Transactions of the VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava“. In addition to rather short contributions of the ordinary series, a new monographic series is being introduced that enables the publishing of extensive results required for procedures for the appointment of professors and also the outcomes of research grant project dealt with the staff of the Faculty of Mining and Geology.

  • Human Society and Mineral Raw Materials

    Zdeněk Vašíček

    Determinants of further development of mankind are analyzed and its full dependence on mineral raw materials is shown. The securing of energy is generally considered as a crucial one. The predicted critical lack of some metals, especially of energetic raw material, and enormous growth of raw material costs has not been confirmed and it seems to be improbable in the next few decades. Apart of conventional mineral resources the research and exploration activities are directed to non-traditional types/resources of mineral raw materials. The attention is concentrated above all to marine resources, namely metalliferous nodules, recent accumulations of rich sulphide ores and accumulations of methane hydrates. Mineral industry is adapted rapidly to these tendencies and to technological changes leading to a new structure of raw material demands. The geoscience responds in the same manner. Both the models of the evolution of the Earth mantle and crust, and the concepts of formation and spatial location of mineral accumulations were reshaped essentially during the last decades The following principal aims are to be elaborated inexpensive and effective exploration process based on advanced technologies and methods of development of first-rate mineral deposits with minimum negative environmental impacts.

  • Exploration of Deep Seabed Mineral Resources and Czech Republic Participation in the Activities (up-to-date situation including future prospects)

    Antonín Pařízek

    The polymetallic nodules, cobalt-rich manganese crust, polymetallic massive sulphides and metalliferrous clays are the major types of deep-sea ore resources. The importance of prospecting for oceanic deposits of these raw materials, representing a potential source of numerous metals that are in short supply at the nearest future on the land-base deposits, has already been demonstrated in practice. Expanding geological survey and investigation to the deep ocean floor has mean onset of a qualitatively new stage in the process of mineral resource extraction – especially by new methods, techniques, and technologies of complex and highly efficient exploration. Continuation of the on-going work on management of polymetallic nodule deposits within Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) is regarded as a serious task to be undertaken over a period until the year 2020, with a due consideration to advance in designing of efficient mining unit, application of modern processing technologies for extraction of major metals - manganese, nickel, cobalt and copper, incorporation of Mo, Zn, Ti and REE into the array of extractable metals including utilization of nodules. On the threshold of the 21st century it is evident that oceans are an immeasurable source of nontraditional raw materials. A prerequisite of a rational management of oceanic resources is the preservation of natural oceanic environment.

  • Morfostructural Analysis as a Right Method of Geology Structure Studying Applied at Representative Moravosilesian Area

    Jan Jelínek

    The Moravosilesian zone of the Bohemian Massif is a unique case due to superposition of three structural levels. The morphostructural analysis of zone of interaction between Cadomian, Variscan and Alpine orogeny is based on 3D visual comparison between interpretation of digital terrain models (DTM) of particular structural levels and results of structural-tectonic mapping. In many aspects, very good geometric correlation between the morphostructural pattern of the present epi-Alpine relief of Outer Carpathian belt and structural framework of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin was demonstrated by comparative morphostructural analysis. Results support significant and so far not well quantified role of the Alpine rejuvenation of the Variscan fault structures during the nappe thrusting of Alpine orogeny. This rejuvenation, which induced dynamic and kinematic development of the Outer Carpathians nappes, brought about interference of the tectonic role of the Brunovistulian basement with its inner structural framework. The coincident sedimentary and tectonic loading by sediments of Inner Carpathian Molasses and by nappes of Outer Carpathian belt influenced development of a lithospheric flexure of Alpine foreland and mainly a rifting activation of subequatorial fault systems. The distinct tilting (bookshelf tectonic block rotation) is typical brittle deformation of rigid Brunovistulian basement that followed genesis of asymmetric lithospheric flexure.

  • Isotopic Composition of Ground Water in the SW Part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin within Territories of Poland and Czech Republic

    Krzysztof Labus, Arnošt Grmela

    Interpretation of the origin of groundwater, sampled and analysed in 2002-2003, in the SW part of the USCB – at the borderland of Poland and Czech Republic, has been performed being based on chemical and isotopic analyses. Mine water from Carboniferous aquifers (Poland) was identified as belonging to the following genetic types: the oldest type of Permian hot climate, paleoinfiltrated Tertiary water types of pre-Badenian and post-Badenian age, and Quaternary water types. Several mixed types of the above-mentioned ones were also ascertained. Recent natural (or technological) waters mix together with waters of the deeper parts of the rock massif. Miocene water from the Czech part of the USCB may be derived from Miocene seawater mixed with water types of another origin. Cumulative mine water from the Ostrava and the Petřvald parts of USCB basin (troughs) are formed by water from the coarse clastic Lower Badenian aquifer (“detrit”) mixed with recent infiltration.

  • Verification of Movements and Deformation by the Measurement on Observation Station

    Jan Schenk, Josef Novák, Václav Mikulenka

    By the contribution results of long-term measurement of mining subsidence and movements (hereafter „displacements“) by the observation station in Žolnov in Karviná part of Ostrava-Karviná coalfield (hereafter OKR) are summarized. Based on comparing of reality with the results of prognostic calculation method used in OKR which at given conditions are not quite coincident with the reality a hypothesis of gradual destruction of undermined Carboniferous roof strata is presented by the authors. Due to gradual multiple exploitation of coal seams the strength characteristics of undermined overlying strata is reduced so that a new shape of mining subsidence depression is formed. At the same time the authors call attention to the fact that it is necessary to take into consideration the dip of both Carbon ridge and coal seams even at conditions of flat deposition of coal seams. The results of research are complemented with many graphs by which the above-mentioned hypothesis is supported.

  • The Štramberk Fossil Site (Uppermost Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous, Outer Western Carpathians) – Two Centuries of the Geological and Paleontological Research

    Zdeněk Vašíček, Petr Skupien

    The submitted contribution is an overview of results which have been already published and which concern the geology and paleontology of Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous deposits in the area of Štramberk. The world-wide known Štramberk Limestone is the most famous member of the sequence of the Štramberk area in the Silesian Unit of the Outer Western Carpathians. The oldest published knowledge appeared in the first half of the 19th century, when the exploitation quarying of the limestones started. Already then the Štramberk Limestone attracted attention of educated men of that time due to the richness of fossils preserved perfectly. The substantial part of these fossils was systematically processed in many monographs as early as during the 19th century. Since the half of the 20th century, research had done in that place have been more extensive and overall. In addition to their paleontological content, published results they have dealt, in an ever increasing detail, with issues of the origin, development and age of limestone bodies. As the publications show, since the beginning the geological position of the limestone and their accompanying rocks has formed the crux of the dispute and has not been clarified yet.

  • Magneto-optical Method for the Measurement of Exchange Anisotropy Relaxation: Application to Double Layered Co/NiO System

    David Hrabovský, Andre R. Fert, Jaromír Pištora

    The effect of exchange coupling between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic layer plays important role in future elements for spinelectronics. In this paper an original magneto-optical method (inspired by paper) for exchange coupling measurement is presented. Using this method for study of Co/NiO bilayers allowed to obtain values of uniaxial and unidirectional exchange anisotropy and gives appear the time dependence of exchange bias field. This time dependence is interpreted as a result of aftereffects in antiferromagnetic layer due to coupling with ferromagnetic layer. Model of Fulcomer-Charap has been extended to the system with the distribution of particles energy, and approximative solution of the distribution is done.

  • The Role and Function of Safety Auditing in Coal Mining Management

    Stanisław Krzemień, Zygmunt Korban

    In present paper the importance of „auditing” for dealing with health and safety problems in underground coal mines is discussed. Various kinds of audit are shown and possibilities of its application for workplaces are indicated. Within frame of the paper a mathematical model of audit and its solution are presented.

  • Computer System Supporting Health Risk Evaluation in a Mine

    Piotr Mocek, Marcin Krause

    Both in Poland and in most countries of European Union among the most important problems, which are not only the social ones, ranks a permanently high occupational disease rate among workers of divers national economy domains. This state results from many causes, the most important of which are the following: exposure of a high percentage of workers to action of one or several noxious factors during technological process, exceeding limit values of specific factors existing in workplace, wrong identification of noxious factors and a long-term delay of gaining of results of action of health hazards, which makes difficult to accomplish a proper health risk evaluation in the workplace (Pawłowska, Zawieska 1997). By this article main principles of a computer system supporting health risk evaluation in mining conditions are presented. The computer system utilizes principles of indexing method of health risk evaluation which has been elaborated by Institute of Ergonomics and Safety Management of Technical University of Silesia (Krzemień, Mocek 1998, Krzemień, Mocek 1999).

2004, Volume L, No.2
  • Deformation Measurements on Bulk Dam of Waterwork in East Slovakia

    Vladimír Sedlák, Miloš Ječný

    The paper discusses some geodetic terrestrial positional measurement results within frame of deformation survey of bulk dam of the waterwork Pod Bukovcom in East Slovakia in vicinity of the town of Košice. Periodic yearly measurements of terrestrial position and yearly leveling measurements have been realized since 1999. Testing and confirming measurements by GPS navigation surveying (GPS) have been equally made since 2001 only to take into consideration a potential survey of bulk dam deformation by means of such satellite system. Independent results of analytical as well as graphic analysis procedures confirmed the assumption that the object points and thus the dam did indicate with 95 % certainty any statistically significant movements. Confidence ellipses of some points did not comply with null hypothesis, because the deformation vectors exceed these confidence ellipses. However, despite this fact the overlapping of the confidence ellipses by deformation vectors was negligible and in view of this deduction about stability of the points was accepted.

  • Processing of 2D Geodetic Networks Surveyed by Terrestrial and Satelite Technology

    Janka Sabová, Vincent Jakub

    By the paper one of possible methods for processing 2D hybrid geodetic networks is presented. Such a task can be topical if new points of local network to be determined are measured both by a satellite (GPS) and terrestrial technology, each technology in another area of network. The principle of such processing and its strategies are discussed. Among various solutions a transformation method is demonstrated by which verification of co-ordinate compatibility is performed in some points which have been determined by GPS and where total stations have been used.

  • Altimetric Measurement of Overhead Power Lines

    Ľudovít Kovanič, Ľudovít Kovanič

    When solving the problem of height measurement within network of overhead power lines the following two alternatives of approach based on apparatus requirements and on procedure were considered. Both the effectiveness of altimeter used in forestry and of basal measuring part of guide bar with a stable and a sliding optical prism of steropair tacheometer were analysed. After having performed field measurements by using the two above mentioned devices we came to the conclusion that the application of forestry altimeter is featured by several disadvantages when compared with picture-pair tacheometer, mainly lower accuracy, more difficult operation, necessity of co-workers and inability to function in inaccessible terrain.

  • Solving Some Problems by Means of Laser Tacheometers Based on Passive Reflex

    Ľudovít Kovanič, Ľudovít Kovanič, Karolína Bakošová

    In the present paper solving of problematics is discussed of verticality checking by using laser tacheometers for specific type of premises by means of comparing co-ordinates of points on vertical axis at level of premises footing and premises crown as well as application of laser tacheometers for checking of verticality of high premises featured by big surface – usually by means of observation of corners or edges of premises. The advantage of this method is that for planimetry of points at inaccessible places signalling is not necessary and a full performance could be achieved by surveyor himself without other personnel, namely in case when measured data are recorded by apparatus memory, and in this way the productivity of labour can be improved.

  • Effect of Reductions of Gravimetric Deviations on Accuracy of Basic Orientation Line Segment During Underground Connecting and Orientation Measuring by Means of Gyroscopic Teodolite

    Jitka Mučková

    By the article analysis effect of vertical deviations on accuracy of orientation underground measurements by means of gyroscopic theodolite is discussed. Based on measurement values of reference base line for gyrotheodolite measurement in Ostrava-Karviná coalfield (hereafter OKR) the values of componets of vertical deviations are mentioned in tables. Subsequently an analysis of their effect on accuracy of determination of the bearing of underground polygon line is presented.

  • Appraisal of Accuracy of Free Positron with Minimum of Given Points and of Measured Quantities

    Michal Mudra

    By the article a compilation of error model of geodetic problem for appraisal of accuracy of a free position with minimum of given points and of measured quantities and with overdetermining of problem by means of a single measured quantity is discussed. A solution of overdetermined problem by pseudoinverse matrix calculated by SVD reduction is given.

  • Archive of Micropetrographic Photographs of Coals from the Czech Part of the Upper Silesian Basin and the Implementation of its database

    Vladimír Homola, Jakub Jirásek, Martin Sivek

    In the present article an implementation of database of archive of micropetrologic photographs of coals from Czech part of Upper Silesian Basin is described. In the designed database solution the text, i.e. descriptive information, is interconnected with image (photographic) documentation of coal polished sections. By this software solution archiving and rational processing of extensive sets of information from the domain of geological sciences is enabled in which similarly structured information relatively often occurs.

  • New Sapropelite Layers in the Petřkovice Member of the Coal-bearing Carboniferous in the Czech Part of the Upper Silesian Basin from the Staříč Allotment

    Martin Sivek, Pavel Filák, Jaroslava Pěgřimočová, Petr Welser

    Coal seams of the Petřkovice Member of the Ostrava Formation are, similarly to the coal seams of other lithostratigraphic units of the Czech part of the Upper Silesian Basin, prevailingly built of hard coal humites. Rather rarely, sapropelite layers that may even form separate thin coal seams appear in the section of the coal seams. In the submitted article, the authors describe two sapropelite layers that have been found newly in the seams 22a (079) and 22b (086) in the upper part of the Petřkovice Member of the Ostrava Formation in the Staříč allotment.

  • Possibilities of Prognosis of Origin of Landslides in Slovakia Based on Climatic and Hydrogeologic Conditions

    Miloslav Kopecký

    By the paper it is demonstrated that by proper graphic representation of rainfall data it is possible to analyse and to predict occurrence of landslides in certain areas of Slovak Republic. For determining of relation between climatic conditions and ground water level in slopes a method of cumulative mass curve of effective precipitation has proved to be competent. Based on knowledge of intensity of daily effective precipitations and of variations of ground water table it is possible to predict ground water level rising and if measuring data on landslide activity are at disposal, it is possible to predict future development of any landslide.

  • Global Mining Restructuring and EU 25 - Consequences for European Miners

    Magnus Ericsson

    With the entry of 10 new member countries to the European Union in May 2004 the mining industry is becoming more important in EU than it was earlier, in particular during the EU 12 days. The mining industry in general is still suffering from a poor image in Europe, particularly among the administration in the European Commission in Brussels. With the current boom in the global mining industry and the possibility of combining the interests of the industry in all the 25 member countries there is a window of opportunity to improve the standing of the industry in Brussels. Based on presentation made at the Faculty of Mining and Geology at the Technical University of Ostrava (VSB) in Ostrava 25 February 2004.

  • Utilization of Industrial Waste for Rolled Concrete Technology of Dam Building Industry

    Michail Lembák, Vojtěch Václavík, Branislav Mošať

    By the paper a contemporary building technology and construction solution of concrete dams with application of industrial waste, especially of power plant fly ash and fine ground or comminuted blast furnace slag is discussed. Actual examples of realisation of gravity dams by means of rolled concrete technology based on power plant fly ash, recipes of concrete mixtures and strength characteristics are mentioned. In addition to this by the paper results of experimental testing research of physico-mechanical properties of concrete types based on fine ground or comminuted blast furnace slag (as substitute for a certain quantity of cement) are given which could be used for construction or reconstruction of dams.

  • Simulation of the Contact Wires in Ropes and its Influence on the Durability of the Steel Wire Ropes

    Jozef Krešák, Pavel Peterka, Stanislav Kropuch

    Ropes rank among the most important components used for transportation. They belong to components of transport systems which are highly effective and at the same time they are the oldest transport components used by mankind. At first textile or copper wire ropes were used by people for transfer of burdens, while steel ropes have been used since nineteenth century. Mining industry is the biggest area of their application mainly for hoisting of are or coal, additional areas of application are vertical or horizontal transportation of mining personnel and burdens by means of cranes, hoists, rope haulage equipment and aerial ropeways. In many cases the ropes are installed in extremely loaded systems in view of rope loading magnitude or of environmental load in high temperature or corrosive environment mine workings etc. Workers are always moving in vicinity of ropes, either when being transported by rope haulage or when they work below burdens suspended on rope. For the above-mentioned reasons the rope is classified in view of safety into specified products, therefore it is necessary prior to putting of rope into operation or bringing it to market to perform testing of rope prescribed by standards and to assess its conformity and certification. However, in spite of correctly performed tests on the basis of which a rope has been certified, the rope might not reach required service life. A big influence on service life of rope has its interaction with the equipment for which it is applied, the way in which a load acts on rope as well as the maintenance of rope during its operation. In addition to these effects the service life of rope is affected by proper rope design as it is mentioned in final part of the paper. Adequacy of rope design is assessed not only from the point of view of strength and deformation characteristics of wires of which the rope is made, but also from the point of view of the way in which the wires are assembled within frame of rope design. As the most important element for service life of steel rope which can be in a maximum extent affected by rope manufacturer the properly designed wire diameters and wire coiling angles can be considered which are adapted to exactly defined rope service conditions.

  • The Environmental Impact Assessment in the Field of Waste Management Premise

    Vladimír Lapčík

    Waste management premises are very important in domain of protection of environment. Many premises of waste management have been realized in the Czech Republic since 1990. Initially above all waste depots, waste incinerators and waste sorting lines were concerned. Most premises of this kind have been assessed in compliance with the previously valid Act N° 244/1992 Coll. on environmental impact assessment. At present decontamination areas, logistic centres for waste disposal, hazardous waste depots (very frequently the low-capacity ones) and car cemeteries have been assessed very often. Plans of the last-mentioned waste management premises shall be now in full extent assessed pursuant to the environmental impact assessment Act N° 100/2001 Coll. By the present paper experience of assessing effects of low-capacity hazardous waste depot as well as of a car cemetery on environment are discussed. The final part of paper deals with prerequisites, which it is necessary to fulfil in particular domains so as to reduce, or eventually to eliminate unfavourable effects of the above-mentioned waste management premises on environment.

  • Permeability of a longwall gob

    David Ševčík

    One of the most serious risks of the underground coal mining is indisputably the risk of the coal spontaneous combustion. For this reason a not inconsiderable attention is devoted to solving of questions connected with the rise, timely finding out, prevention and restraining of spontaneous combustion. With these problems the aerodynamics of gob areas of longwall headings in which there frequently comes to the spontaneous combustion processes is closely connected. One of the most important and also hardly determinable parameters of the gob area aerodynamics is its permeability. The goal of this article was to compile information from the sphere of the rocks permeability and to describe the making use of these documents for mathematical modeling of the gob area aerodynamics.

  • Installation for the Oxygen Sorption Dynamics Assessment of Coal

    Richard Keler

    The principle of the oxygen sorption dynamics assessment method is based on monitoring of pressure changes inside enclosed flasks with coal samples. This method assumes that the coal mass absorbs oxygen from the atmosphere in the enclosed flask. As a consequence of this sorption, there is underpressure in the flask in comparison with the surrounding atmosphere. The oxygen sorption dynamics assessment is carried out at the temperature of the environment in the laboratory. At the beginning of the test, the composition of the atmosphere in the laboratory is identical to the atmosphere of the environment. In the case that all external influences will be eliminated and all oxygen air will oxygenize inside the flask, the pressure would drop inside the flask and it would equal the original partial oxygen pressure, i.e. approximately 21 kPa. This article presents a brief overview of oxygen sorption dynamics verification methods and include the realization of oxygen static method at the HGF VŠB-TU Ostrava.