2005, Volume LI, No.1
  • Supplements to History of Geological and Paleontological Research of Štramberk Territory

    Zdeněk Vašíček, Petr Skupien

    Last year we compiled a list of publications dealing with the history of geological and palaeontological researches into Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous deposits in the area of Štramberk. The list published recently is supplemented by more as 40 other references and by the latest published results.

  • Former Mining Region from the Point of View of the Analysis of Changes in Landscape Elements – River Stretch from 17.5 km to 22 km in the Bottom Land of the Oder River

    Marian Marschalko, Konstantin Raclavský, Vojtech Dirner

    In the submitted publication the analysis of changes in landscape elements in the old mining region that represents one partial area of interest of the total number of 9 planned areas (1a,1b,1c,2a,2b,2c,3a,3b,3c) is presented. The model area No. 1c is determined by two aerial photographs from the year 1946 (653, 627) and the17.5 to 2-kilometre stretch of the Oder River (in the north delimited by the junction of this river with the Opava River, the south boundary is formed by a so-called Polanka connective railway). Changes in landscape elements, such as forests, water bodies, farmlands, built-up areas, anthropogenic areas were analysed by using GISs in two time series (aerial photographs from the year 1946 and present topographic maps). Researches were supplemented by field observation and documentation. The changes given above had been influenced by former hard coal mining. The methodology mentioned was applied here for the first time.

  • Evaluation of the Influence of Saturation on Slope Stability in Type Models of Deluvial-eluvial Complexes

    Marian Marschalko

    The publication presents results of the partial study (overall study – 8 type models) dealing with the influence of various degrees of saturation in four model sections through slope deformations in the deluvial-eluvial complexes of various thicknesses (4 thicknesses corresponding to the models) that are composed of three different materials (each of the models deals with 3 material variants). It will be followed with another partial study concerned with the influence of thickness, gradient, angle of internal friction and cohesion on the stability of slopes under the above-mentioned conditions of the geological structure of slopes that are typical of the flysch zone. Existing capabilities of computing technologies make it possible, in a far greater extent, to take into account variable factors disturbing the equilibrium state of slopes. In the work, limit equilibrium methods are used to make the processing of extensive data sets and variant calculations easier.

  • Slovak Karst Jasov Plateau - Evaluation of Sensitivy of Rocks and Vulnerability of Rock Environment in its Eastern Part

    Michal Zacharov

    Jasov plateau is part of the Slovak karst. The plateau ranks among areas to which a relatively small attention was paid from the engineering geological point of view. The evaluations of sensitivy of rocks and of vulnerability of rock environment were applied in compliance with STN 443704 classification standards. The sensitivity of rock is capability environment to respond to action of vulnerability factors which have been provoked by effect of human activities on rock environment. The rocks participating in geological structure of plateau were classified predominantly into such sensitive rocks category.

  • Application of Tabellar Processor for Dynamic Modelling in Geosciences

    Vladimír Homola

    During the teaching and in the professional practice, it is necessary to study the performance of some quantity (dependent variable) in relation to other quantities. Usually the performance of that quantity is given by the set of equations. The others quantities are then independent variables, and the parameters of the equations. The most comprehensible tool in modelling is the dynamic gradation followed by graphical information. This ar-ticle shows how to use Excel just in this way. It explains the frequently used constructions but in features not known in general. The article presents also some objects and properties used sporadic only. All of this leads up to nonformal context of dynamic modelling. The test case solves the geophysical problem - magnetic potential of the thick plate; this task is known as the direct problem of magnetometry. The article is designed for the non-specialist in computer sciences but interested reader who needs the dynamic look on his own professional data.

  • Products of Combustion Solid Fuels in Small Domestic Furnaces, Part I. Combustion of Brown Coal

    Michal Ritz, Pavel Jurečka, Zdeněk Klika, Vít Chalupa, David Mohyla, Vlasta Štefanidesová

    This article deals with combustion products during combustion of brown coal in small furnaces. A model apparatus was constructed for simulation of brown coal combustion in a small domestic furnace. Three samples of brown coal with different content of sulfur and ash were combusted and studied. Temperatures within furnace and as well as emissions of CO2, CO, SO2, NO, O2 and of gaseous hydrocarbons were measured during combustion. Moreover, for a determination of selected heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Hg and Pb) the samples of gaseous emissions were collected. Equally certain selected elements occurring in brown coal, in bottom ash and fly ash were determined (Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Hg and Pb) and their distribution was calculated. The most part of total mass of some elements (Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb) was found in bottom ash, while Se a Pb were found mostly in fly ash, while S, Cl, Br and Hg were present mostly in gaseous emissions. The leaching extractability tests of bottom ashes were performed. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons have been determined in fly ash.

  • Products of Combustion Solid Fuels in Small Domestic Furnaces, Part II. Combustion of Brown Coal

    Michal Ritz, Pavel Jurečka, Pavel Sedláček, Zdeněk Klika, David Mohyla, Vít Chalupa, Vlasta Štefanidesová

    This article is second part of the previously mentioned research report that has dealt with combustion products of brown coal combustion in small furnaces [8]. The model apparatus was constructed for simulation of brown coal combustion in a small domestic furnace. Three samples of brown coal pellets with different amounts of additive and different grain size were combusted and studied. Calcium dihydroxide was used as additive. Temperatures within furnace and of exhaust gases as well as emissions of CO2, CO, SO2, NO, O2 and of gaseous hydrocarbons were measured during combustion. Moreover, for the determination of selected heavy metals (Cr,Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Hg and Pb) the samples of gaseous emissions were collected. Equally in brown coal pellets, in bottom ashes and in fly ashes selected elements were determined (Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Hg and Pb) and their distributions were calculated. A predominant part of total mass of some elements (Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb) was found in bottom ash, while Se and Pb were found mostly in fly ash and Cl, Br and Hg were present mostly in gaseous emissions. During combustion of non-additive pellets sulfur occurred mainly in gaseous emissions, but at combustion of pellets with additive the sulfur was predominantly bonded by bottom ash. Similar decrease of volatility was found for As, Se, Cl, Br and Hg. The leaching extractability tests of bottom ashes were performed.

  • Disinfection of Treated Wastewater by UV Radiation

    Martina Veselá

    Monitoring of microbial contamination of surface water is of immediate interest in the Czech Republic nowadays, since the related legislative has become more stringent as a consequence of joining the European Union. As major surface water microbial pollutant factor the waste water can be considered which has been discharged from waste water treatment plants. Such waste water has been treated, but it has not been disinfected. Consequently, it contains a big amount of undesirable micro-organisms. This paper provides results of trial testing of disinfection of the treated waste water by means of ultraviolet (hereafter UV) irradiation in the WWTP of Slavkov u Brna as well as in the WWTP of Havířov. Finally, a comprehensive analysis of economic and technical aspects has been carried out, comparing the UV disinfection with sodium chlorate disinfection.

  • Influence Of Thermophilic Anaerobic Stabilisation On Wwtp Sludge Dewatering

    Marcela Zrubková

    Thermophilic anaerobic stabilisation ranks among possibilities for intensifying the WWTP sludge management. If the thermophilic anaerobic stabilisation is compared with a mesophilic treatment process, organic substances are more reduced, production of bio-gas is higher, and pathogenic waste disposal efficiency is higher. This paper provides research results of the thermophilic anaerobic stabilisation and its impacts on dewatering capacity of sludge including the selection of a suitable flocculant for the thermophilic sludge. The monitoring was carried out in a stabilising tank model where the temperature was increased gradually to turn the mesophilic process into a thermophilic one. While increasing the anaerobic stabilisation temperature, the dewatering capacity of the sludge was evaluated.

2005, Volume LI, No.2
  • Binary Indicators of Thermal Oxidation of Ostrava-Karviná District Coal

    Alois Adamus, Jindřich Šancer

    In the years 1986-2001, the research activity called “Cataloguing of seams from the viewpoint of their tendency towards spontaneous combustion” had run in the Ostrava-Karviná District (OKR) in the Czech part of Upper Silesian Basin. Totally 62 coal samples were documented. The gas images of gaseous products of thermal oxidation of coal samples containing the gases CO, CO2, decrease of O2, H2 and saturated and non-saturated gaseous hydrocarbons C2-C4 created an integral part of catalogues. For the purposes of these gas images evaluation two computer databases and two computing programs for evaluation of basic materials were created. In content of the article the selected binary ratios of gases are emphasized which can be applied in the OKR practice for indication of temperature of spontaneous combustion focus.

  • Extraction of Zinnwaldite from Mining and Processing Wastes

    Jiří Botula, Pavel Rucký, Vlastimil Řepka

    Lithium is the lightest metal in the periodic table of elements, whose world reserves in the available deposits are estimated to be 20Mt, and in the Czech Republic Li makes up about 1% of the world reserves as the residual element in Sn-W ore mineralization. Significant reserves of Li are also represented in waste from the former mining and processing of Sn-W ores in the Krušné hory region, containing about 0.2% Li. The world consumption of lithium is estimated 6 kt/year and a gradual increase is expected, as well as an increase of the price. With regard to the fact that the consumption of Li in the Czech Republic is covered by the import, it would be suitable to eliminate this dependence to some extent and utilize the Czech resources of Li for production. At the beginning, the easiest method seems to be utilization of the present waste piles from the gravity processing of Sn-W ores in the estimated amount of 3.5 Mt in the former deposit of Cínovec. This paper is devoted to the possibilities of extracting Li-concentrates from raw materials.

  • Development and Application of ArcGIS Software Extensions for Utilization at Structural and Morphotectonic Analyse

    Jan Jelínek, Jiří Ardielli, Jakub Jirka, Vlastimil Kajzar

    The aim of this paper is to inform about newly developed extensions at ArcGIS 9.0, which are helpful at resolving structure and morphostructure problems. Application of digital terrain analysis in GIS environment enables fast mutual confrontation of results of geomorphologic analysis with geological data. Unfortunately there is no suitable software for application of some modern geological and morphotectonic digital terrain analyses in GIS at present. The first developed extension is conversion of grid data from Surfer 8 software into ESRI ArcMap. The function transfers feature data into ESRI shapefile format and grids into ESRI grid file format. The second extension is used for interactive fast saving of structural data of map to existent structural database. Another extension uses statistic methods for analysis of structural data or analysis of azimuths of polyline in different coverages. Typical example is stream network. Application finds out azimuth of each segment of river stream located in defined polygon. Azimuths are shown in rose diagrams for each separate polygon. Rightness of run and suitableness of application of created extensions were verified at data from Opava region.

  • Distribution and Removing of Mercury During the Solid Fuel Combustion

    Martin Stach, Zdeněk Klika, Lucie Bartoňová

    This work represents an overview of current knowledge in the field of distribution of mercury and its efficient removal from flue gas at coal combustion and co-combustion of coal and wastes. Mercury is the most volatile element present in solid fuels and during the coal combustion it is captured in particulate control device only partially, which results in a contamination of atmosphere and consequently also of biosphere. Strict regulations of air protection have brought about the development of new and efficient techniques of mercury removal from flue gas, which in combination with the particulate control device can reach even 90% removal efficiency. Injection of adsorbents in the flue gas stream is thought to be the most perspective method. This is the reason why this work deals above all with the efficiency results obtained using adsorbents at laboratory, pilot-scale and full-scale combustion tests.

  • Relicts of Coal-Bearing Terciary in Ústí Area of North Bohemia Brown Coal Coalfield

    Vlastimil Macůrek

    Outside the boundary of North Bohemia brown coal basin there are denudation relics of coal-bearing Miocene which are designated as „separate mini coal basins“. This designation is based on miner understanding of such a relic as independent mini coal basin. Such separate mini coal basins are scattered above all beyond southern outcrop of coal seam of main brown coal basin and they document the originally more extensive sedimentation area of North Bohemia brown coal basin. By present article the mini coal basins are described occurring in eastern part of North Bohemian brown coalfield which are named Varvažov, Úžín, Ústí, Malhostice, Žichlice and Nechvalice mini coal basins.

  • Possibilities of Recycling of Fine-Grained Metallurgical Wastes from Old Waste Depots

    Vlastimil Řepka, Jiří Botula

    Fine top gas mud from washing the blast-furnace gas was deposited to the waste disposal sites in the past, because its further processing was not possible because of heavy metal content – particularly lead and zinc – higher than what is allowed by the relevant regulations [6]. The goal of the project is to monitor the waste disposal sites with top gas mud in the Ostrava region, taking and analysing the samples and following laboratory verification of the technology for physical or possibly chemical removal of zinc and lead. Such decontaminated old ecological burdens could be used as a sinter charge of agglomeration together with other raw materials - by that the waste would be used and the occupation of the land would be reduced. At the same time the cost of depositing and disposal of top gas mud from the production would be decreased.

  • Content of Water in Coal Seams of the Czech Part of the Upper Silesian Basin

    Marek Čáslavský, Jakub Jirásek, Martin Sivek

    In the submitted article the authors are concerned with the spatial distribution of water content in coal seams in the Czech part of the Upper Silesian Basin. To observe the surface distribution of water content, maps of coal seams in specific stratal units were made. The depth distribution of water content in the basin was observed in sections and also in particular exploratory boreholes. The dependence of water content in the seams on the depth of seam burial was confirmed (Schürmann rule). However, in the spatial distribution of water content, any zones of increased degree of coalification delimited earlier by the analysis of the distribution of volatile matter content in the basin were not proved. Low values of the content of water in hard coal prevent from using this parameter for modelling the history of coalification in hard coal basins.

  • Effect of Nature of Statistical Distribution of Deposit Data on Deposit Model of Mineral Raw Materials

    František Staněk, Vlastimil Kajzar

    A correct formulation of statistical distribution of processed deposit data is a necessary condition to estimate statistical parameters and to realize subsequent data processing. It is a well-known fact that empirical distributions of most quantities describing geological bodies do not comply with a normal distribution, they are often asymmetric. However, most common mathematical procedures assume these quantities as normal distributed ones. We describe a method of transforming the initial data distributed asymmetrically into the normal distributed ones, applied in the field of coal seam modeling with use of Interactive software system for application of modern methods of evaluation of coal deposits and their parts under complicated conditions (This software is developed by IGI HGF VŠB-TU Ostrava within the frame of GA ČR project No 105/03/1417.). We use the so-called quantile transformation of input data. On several case studies we show which inexactitudes arise without application of such transformation when modeling attributes of coal seam.

  • The Leachability of the Mercury from the Contaminated Materials

    Vlasta Štefanidesová, Martina Münsterová, Katarína Rapošová, Vladimír Pavlíček

    Soils and river sediments with high concentrations of mercury were leached by means of the following extraction agents: water, sulfate acid, potassium nitrate, nitrate acid, hydrochloric acid, calcium chloride and EDTA. The contents of mercury in these extracts were mostly lower than 0.001 µg.l-1. The samples were individually enriched by the addition of 10, 20, 50 a 100 µg.g-1 of mercury (addition of mercury nitrate , c = 1.00 g.l-1). The mercury concentrations in the enriched extracts were mostly low. The samples of soil PA and of the river sediment S2 were divided into five fractions ( > 10; 2 – 10; 0.63 – 2; 0.2 – 0.63; < 0.2 mm). Three of the finest fractions of soil PA (P3 – P5) and sediment SB (S3 – S5), were enriched by 20 µg.g-1 of mercury and extracted by the above mentioned reagents. The concentrations of the mercury were acquired by the statical and dynamical extraction method. The results of the statical method were higher than the ones acquired by the dynamical extraction method. The fractions of the soil and of the sediment (0.63 – 2 mm), enriched by the addition of 50 µg.g-1 mercury were extracted in the time of 4.5 months by nitrate acid and by EDTA. The equilibrium was reached after about 150 000 minutes in both cases by nitrate acid. In the extracts of EDTA was the equilibrium reached after about 120 minutes. Furthermore, the dependence of the leachability of the mercury on the particle size was observed. The finest fractions of the soils PA (P3 – P5) and the ones of the sediment SB (S3 – S5) were enriched by addition of 50 µg.g-1 mercury. The particle size does not affect the extracted concentration of mercury, as it was expected.

  • Complex of Software Support for Computer Simulation of Deposits and Decision of Mining-Geological Problems

    Vladimir Skazhenik, Oleg Moroz, Victor Vitsinsky

    The questions of modelling mining enterprises and the complex decision of problems of mining manu-facture on the basis of computer simulation are considered In given article. Functions of subsystems are de-scribed, examples of models’ creation and the decision of specific tasks are given. Distinctive features of soft-ware system in comparison with similar foreign software packages are considered.

  • Maintenance of Stability of Preparatory Mine-Working with Longitudinal-Rigid Strenthening of the Main Timbering

    Vladimir Skazhenik, Oleg Moroz, Victor Vitsinsky

    Here represented the results of actual industrial test of the longitudinal sharp strengthening of the preparatory working main timbering in a zone of clearing works influence.