2010, Volume LVI, Issue No.4, ISSN 1802-5420
  • Mrakotin Granite of The Horni Dvorce Quarry - Properties, Utilization, Research

    Martin Štrejbar, Milan Mikoláš, Petra Gernová

    In this paper, the authors inform readers about the operation of the Horni Dvorce Quarry exploiting the Mrakotin-type granite. The paper further summarizes the properties and utilization of the mined raw material. The reader is also familiarized with the parameters of research being currently in progress in this quarry. This is the research on mechanical properties of granites of Mrakotin type using various types of explosives to produce products of coarse and fine stone production.

  • Automated System for Prediction of Technological Parameters of Abrasive Water Jet Cutting Mechanism

    Michal Řepka, Jan Valíček, Milena Kušnerová, Sergej Hloch

    The abrasive waterjet technology is used today mainly for cutting metal materials. However, it is possible to use this technology also for cutting non-metal materials like marble or other materials whose surface must comply with specific parameters. Cutting non-metal materials using the abrasive waterjet technology is quite rare at present and we can find it mainly in laboratories. The main reason can be complicated settings of technological parameters. Technicians working with these mechanisms can predict these parameters based on their previous experience. Without such experience or when using new materials they have to make a lot of experiments to find the right technological parameters. The main task of this paper is to show how to use modern small computers to apply the automated system for the prediction of necessary parameters for the abrasive water jet cutting system which is developed at our university. This automated system can be helpful especially for the technicians who works with the abrasive waterjet technology or it may be part of robotized workplaces in future.

  • Phosphorus Removal from Water Using Fly Ash and Modificated Fly Ash - Comparison of X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry and Standard Spectrophotometric Methods

    Barbora Mikendová, Jan Thomas, Tomáš Daněk

    This study investigates sorptive properties of three different types of fly ash and one fly ash type treated with a 1M, 3M, and 6M solution of NaOH to remove phosphates from water. In addition, this work examines possibilities of using the Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (WD XRF) spectrometry method for the analysis of phosphorus in liquid samples. The WD XRF method was compared with the standard spectrophotometric method (molybdate method). The results showed that the fly ash containing the highest initial CaO concentration sorbed the greatest amount of phosphorus. The treatment of fly ash with NaOH solutions did not significantly enhanced the sorption capacity of fly ash. The determination of P in fly ash indicated a good correlation between both methods, thus validated the application of XRF for the analysis of P in water.

  • Usage of Insar Techniques to Detect and Monitor Terrain Subsidence Due to Mining Activities

    Milan Lazecký, Eva Jiránková, Dagmar Böhmová

    Land subsidence is monitored in several ways. Mostly the geodetic technique of geometric levelling is used. Also, the possibility to use the radar interferometry for monitoring has been successfully verified. In the area of Nnorthern Moravia several active mines are located causing in some places a subsidence of more than 1m a year. The existing radar images of this area from the ERS-1, ERS-2 and Envisat satellites, which had been acquired in the period from 1996 to 2008, were processed by 2-pass differential radar interferometry and advanced methods of radar interferometry, and thus subsidence epicentres were indicated and subsidence rates estimated. From the resulting interferograms the evolution and movement of subsidence can be seen, however, when compared to the survey data it is apparent the predicted subsidence rate is heavily underestimated. This is due to the sensitivity of the radar interferometry method to the quality of input data - only a very small number from 128 available images could be properly combined; the reasons are given below. For the advanced methods using the entire time series of shots, not just individual couples, pictures were selected only from a sufficiently short period, during which only a slight movement of subsidence epicentre is assumed over driven mine workings. The attempts to process a longer period of 4 years resulted in the loss of information on the evolution of subsidence in individual points due to their relatively rapid horizontal motion - the subsiding area was detected in this period (1996-2000), but no correct data on the rate of subsidence is available. For the processing the Permanent Scatterers and Small Baseline methods were used, both of them are implemented in the StaMPS program, whose concrete results also exceeded the tested Delft SP Toolbox implementation.

  • Possibility of Using Tracer Gases to Determine The Coal Mass in The Outbreak of Spontaneous Combustion and Related Affecting Factors

    Pavla Guřanová , Václav Zubíček , Denisa Fiurášková

    Spontaneous combustion of coal mass is a very actual problem in underground coal mines. Professional research workplaces have investigated the problem since the first half of the twentieth century. Spontaneous combustion of coal in the form of endogenous fires is a reason of extraordinary events whose consequences are serious both in terms of economic losses, and in the field of security, because in the worst cases they are accompanied by the loss of human lives. Tracer gases are associated manifestations of each spontaneous combustion process, but their utilization to determine the extent of the outbreak of endogenous fire is burdened by numerous factors. The article addresses these affecting factors as well as the possibility of using the tracer gases to determine the mass of spontaneous combustion outbreak.

  • Thermal Maturity of Organic Matter Within Carboniferous Clastic Rocks in The Drogomyśl Ig-1 Drill Hole (The Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland)

    Zdzisław Adamczyk , Ewa Krzeszowska , Andrzej Porszke

    The aim of the study was to determine the thermal maturity level of organic matter on the basis of reflectance measurements performed on vitrinite from Carboniferous sandstones, mudstones and claystones in the Drogomyśl IG-1 drill hole in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland. Random reflectance Rr of vitrinite in the sandstones varies between 0.72% and 1.28%, while in the fine-grained rocks between 0.77 and 1.31%, which corresponds to paleotemperature of 110 to 180oC. Calculated geothermic paleogradients varies between 60oC/km and 63oC/km which leads to the conclusion that minimum thickness of the sedimentary overburden eroded from the surface of Carboniferous beds was from 4800 to 5000m. However, taking into consideration only geothermic paleogradients (70o - 100oC/km), calculated for the layers occurring below the depth of 1500m, the thickness of the eroded overburden should be from 5600 to 8000m.

  • Mining Enterprise in The Sector of Construction Minerals in The Czech Republic

    Michal Vaněk, Hana Růčková

    The paper focuses on mining enterprises that do business in the area of construction minerals, thus in one of the most important sectors from the perspective of the Czech mining. First the paper describes the sector of construction minerals and characterizes it by outputs and revenues. The paper also deals with basic legislation, which is crucial for each mining enterprise as a business entity. The focus of our paper, however, lies in the analysis of mining enterprises in terms of their legal form, nationality of their owners, size of capital, interest mining segments and number of staff.

  • Rigorous Risk Assessment as a Tool for Prevention of Accidents of Tailings Ponds

    Jan Kaňka

    The contribution informs briefly about the storage of waste from mining and processing minerals, particularly in a tailings pond. Tailings ponds may pose a hazard to the environment and human health and may even endanger human life, as presented by some extraordinary events (accidents) that have occurred recently in Europe. Legislative solutions to their safe operation are presented in terms of current legislation and also in terms of new European and Czech legislation. This contribution is supplemented by the information related to this issue, such as the information on BAT.

  • Regional Flood Early Warning System

    Petr Rapant, Jan Unucka, Ivo Vondrák

    Natural disasters have occurred for a very long time, virtually on all continents, and it is obvious that in the areas where human’s social, economic and cultural activities are concentrated, their impacts are more severe. The Laboratory for Modelling and Simulations of Hazardous Situations, operating at the VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, works on a long-term basis on a project called FLOods REcognition On the Net (FLOREON) aimed at development (to meet the needs of the Moravian-Silesian Region) a system for modelling, simulating, monitoring and if appropriate even predicting crisis situations caused by both adverse natural, and possibly human effect. The paper describes principles which the FLOREON system is built on, a conception of the entire system and the first results achieved. In conclusion its further development is outlined, and focused on an extension of the system by next hazardous phenomena such as the modelling of dangerous substance leakage, monitoring of traffic situations and others. So a system occurs denoted as FLOREON+. The plus sign in the name means the system will deal not only with floods, but also with other phenomena in the territory.

2010, Volume LVI, Issue No.3 - special, ISSN 1802-5420

Hydrogeological processes in the context of closed uranium mines flooding in the Czech Republic and Germany

  • Mining and Remediation at The Straz Pod Ralskem Uranium Deposit

    Vladimír Ekert, Jiří Mužák

    The presented paper brings brief information about the history of chemical uranium mining in the area of Straz pod Ralskem. It further presents the extent of environmental contamination caused by the operations of in-situ uranium leaching during 32 years. There is more than 370 million m3 of affected ground water, in which almost 5 million contaminating substances are dissolved. In conclusion, descriptions of used and forward-looking surface technologies of contamination removal involving time and financial assessments of the entire remediation process are given. It is envisaged that the remediation will take nearly 25 years and the total costs of its implementation are estimated in the amount of CZK 40 billion.

  • Geology and Uranium Mining in The Deposit of Schlema-Alberoda

    Axel Hiller

    The Schlema-Alberoda vein uranium deposit was discovered after World War II when Russian geologists started the uranium exploration in Saxony. Up to this time just some historical mining attempts were known from this area and its radioactive water has been utilized in the former “Radium Spa Oberschlema” since 1913. In total, from 1946 to 1991 the Schlema-Alberoda deposit has produced about 80500 metric tons of uranium. The exploitation was carried out usually as longwall stoping (overhand, cut-and-fill). All uranium concentrations have been extracted rigorously, especially in the upper part of the Oberschlema central field. As a result, serious problems in mining as well as many fractures and subsidence damages on surface took place. This enforced the demolition of the centre of the former “Radium Spa Oberschlema. Because of the large-scale uranium mining operations with high intensity and complexity, the rehabilitation in the Schlema-Alberoda mining area is extensive too.

  • Mine Waters of The Flooded Příbram Uranium Deposit

    Karel Lusk

    From the Příbram deposit, which was the largest exploited uranium deposit in the Czech Republic, mine water has been drained under controlled conditions, treated and discharged into the Kocába River since the flooding of the deposit in October 2005. The amount of water drained in this way is determined at any particular moment by the volume of seepage from precipitation and surface water into the underground mine cavities. The draining of overbalance mine waters is carried out at two points through the shafts No. 19 and No. 11A, which have not yet been decommissioned by backfilling. The pumped water is piped to the mine water treatment plants ČDV Příbram I and ČDV Příbram II, where contaminants are removed. The contribution presents ongoing changes in mine water chemistry after the deposit was flooded.

  • Flooding of The Königstein Underground Mine Hydraulic and Geochemical Modelling Approach

    Thomas Metschies

    Uranium was produced in the Königstein mine by conventional mining as well as underground in-situ leaching activity from a sandstone aquifer between 1964 and 1990. Due to the chemical mining and the secondary effect of pyrite oxidation the pore water of the rock matrix has a pH of less than 2 and a high content of among others uranium, iron and sulphate. Another source of contaminants are soluble minerals which precipitated in open mine workings. They will dissolve during the flooding and generate a contaminant peak right after the beginning of the flooding of open mine spaces. The remediation of the mine should aim for the restoration of the natural groundwater flow in the regional flow system.

  • Flooding of The Schlema - Alberoda Uranium Mines: Aspects of The Prognosis Regarding The Uranium Concentration in Flood Waters

    Jürgen Meyer, Ulf Jenk

    The main points of interest of this paper are several uranium mines in Western Saxony which have been flooded or are in a flooded state. Particularly significant are the large Schlema-Alberoda uranium mine in the vicinity of the city of Aue, and the small Pöhla mine on the border with the Czech Republic. Both mines are in the final stage of remediation by WISMUT GmbH. Uranium is the only main pollutant that is emitted by WISMUT GmbH into the Zwickauer Mulde River. The main sources are the Schlema-Alberoda mine and the largest mining waste rock pile at the development site. WISMUT was thus prompted by the authorities to erect and operate a special water treatment facility for the seepage water from the aforementioned largest waste rock pile in order to remove uranium. The maximum level of residual uranium concentration tolerated in flood water and seepage water is currently 0.5 mg/l, for which the relevant authorities are considering an appropriate reduction. All these facts underline the importance of uranium in the remediation of the Schlema-Alberoda mining area.

  • Mine Waters of The Flooded Uranium Deposit in Olší

    Bedřich Michálek, Arnošt Grmela

    After abandonment of underground uranium mines, it is necessary to ensure the safe use of mine waters accumulated in flooded mines, because they contain uranium, radium and other contaminants in high concentrations and may thus, in the case of uncontrollable release from flooded mines, endanger their surrounding environment. On the other hand, with regard to their considerable volume, these mine waters represent a secondary source of uranium. In this paper the author reports on the use of mine waters after mining operations in the Olší deposit were finished and on methods of mine water treatment. He also deals with the possibilities of producing uranium as a secondary product in the course of mine water treatment.

2010, Volume LVI, Issue No.2, ISSN 1802-5420
  • Marketing Research into The Quality of Services Provided by The Leos Janacek Airport in Ostrava-Mošnov

    Simona Matušková

    Transport infrastructure and accessibility is one of benchmarking criteria on successful regional development and prosperity. The accessibility is important not only for tourist industries and their customers, but especially for potential investors. The existence of an airport is a precondition for the air traffic accessibility. The majority of us take the existence of the airport for granted without realizing the fact that it is largely financed by the Moravia-Silesia Region. With regards to ever decreasing air traffic figures, the owners of airports are in a difficult economic situation. They operate under the necessity of looking for sources of additional income, as the core activity revenues of passenger and cargo traffic are diminishing. This brings increasing pressure on the quality of services provided, as the number of customers decreases and customers are ever more demanding. As such, the Marketing Research into the Quality of Services Provided by the Airport, Ostrava-Mošnov has been the subject of this project study.

  • Solar Energetics and its Environmental Impact

    Vladimír Lapčík , Marta Lapčíková

    The article summarizes possibilities of utilization of solar energy in energetics. The article describes solar thermal power stations (inclusive of concentrating solar power stations), storage of solar energy by means of chemical energy (hydrogen) and its successive utilization in fuel cell, indirect conversion (thermo-electric conversion based on the so-called Seebeck´s phenomenon), and eventually direct (photovoltaic) conversion. The final part of the paper deals with questions of necessity of the environmental impact assessment process in the field of solar photovoltaic plants in the Czech Republic.

  • Interpretation of Mutual Positional Errors of Identical Points in Digital Technical Map of Ostrava City and Digital Cadastral Map in Cadastral District of Hošťálkovice

    Jiří Žváček

    This paper deals with the comparison of two map bases in the cadastral district of Hošťálkovice on the map sheet of Opava 0-9/44. The first one is the Digital Technical Map of Ostrava City (DTMOC) and the other is the Digital Cadastral Map (DCM). The determination of mutual positional errors is important when analysing the usability of the data taken from the DCM for completing and updating the DTMOC.

  • Utilization of Gas from Closed Underground Coal Mines

    Petr Urban

    The paper deals with the possibility of using gas from closed underground coal mines in the Ostrava-Karvinna Coalfield in the Czech Republic (OKR). It proves that by suitable closing shafts it is possible to get through the use of technical equipment a relatively significant source of energy. It considers how to use for these reasons degassing boreholes.

  • Some Aspects of Ellipsoidal Distance Enumeration in Gis Applications

    Vladimír Homola

    The article is the introductory study for one of the fundamental geo-informatics operations - the reciprocal position calculation of Earth localities. It is known that, in general, this calculation leads up to an elliptic integral calculation. In a computer environment, the algorithms are determined by data storage precision. Furthermore, repeated calculation with numerous data results in deceleration of all the applications. In special cases, the accurate application of ellipsoidal trigonometry can be replaced by a procedure that is more elementary. This study discusses some of these procedures and demonstrates their application in a given task.

  • Using Sigmoid Functions for Modelling South African Gold Production

    Jürgen Müller, Vojtech Dirner

    Sigmoid functions were used to approximate the cumulative gold production curve of Southern Africa and to extrapolate them into the future. Southern Africa was chosen because one third of the historic global world gold production comes from the Witwatersrand basin area, and also because the peak gold point was already reached in 1970. All models give a good agreement with reality, when the negative effects of World War II and the positive effects of the apartheid boom 1950 - 1970 are compensated for. From today's viewpoint the Gompertz function was found to give the best model, although this model implies the peak occurred 10 years earlier and due to the apartheid boom was about 300 tons higher. It also shows that the production could possibly rise again in the future to a level of 400 or even 500 metric tons a year. Hence, a biomodal production curve with at least two peak points could be observed in the future. Mathematical results are discussed in respect to the political and economic history of this country.

  • Determination of Verticality and Straightness of Blind Shaft Using Digital Photogrammetry

    Dagmar Böhmová, Michal Šeliga, David Vala

    The contribution results from the GA CR 105/09/P212 grant solution aiming at making a proposal of the measurement methodology and the data processing procedure for vertical mine workings. Resulting from the tests performed in a laboratory blind shaft n the building of the Rector's Office at the VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, a surveying rig, having been used till now, will be adjusted for measuring vertical mine workings using the digital photogrammetric method.
    Taking digital images, a lot of means will occur to create applications for processing and automatic evaluation of verticality and straightness of individual objects of interest, or 3D modelling or visualization of shaft. Based on the results a mean error of the proposed measuring method will then be determined.

2010, Volume LVI, Issue No.1, ISSN 1802-5420
  • Utilization of Agricultural Waste (Phasoleus Vulgaris L, Prunus Cerasifera – Myrobalan) for Wastewater Treatment High in Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn by Sorption

    Kateřina Cechlová, Monika Pullmanová

    The use of sorption technology for the removal of contaminants of waste streams is favorable when biological treatments are not applicable. Utilization of agricultural waste for sorption is one of the alternative technologies for cleaning of industrial wastewaters. This part of the utilization of industrial wastes for wastewater treatment project aims to investigate the use of bean-pods Phasoleus vulgaris L and plum nuts Prunus cerasifera – myrobalan as a sorbent, verify the chemical and thermal activation of the sorbent and investigate the sorption of Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn from syntheticaly prepared waste water.

  • Result Comparison of Simulations of Design Discharges Using Energy Loss Equation and Dynamic Wave Aproximation

    Michal Podhorányi, Boris Šír, Martin Ďuricha

    The flood risk is still a very serious problem, especially in urban areas. Man’s knowledge in the fields of hydrology, water management and also information and geoinformation technologies develops very quickly, so there are many techniques of the flood risk assessment. Ones of the most effective and actual tools of the hydrological practice are hydrological models. Nowadays, there is a large number of these models and the most advanced ones offer a number of several computation hydrological techniques. The aim of this contribution is to compare the results of the design flood waves moving through a river computed using two different hydrological techniques, the energy loss equation and dynamic wave approximation.

  • Testing of Accuracy of Reflectorless Distance Measurement of Selected Leica and Topcon Total Stations

    Jana Mazalová, Kateřina Valentová, Lenka Vlčková

    Each new geodetic instrument before being put into normal operation is verified for compliance with the manufacturer declared parameters. The procedures for testing of geodetic instruments at the Institute of Geodesy and Mine Surveying, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava (hereinafter referred to as IGMS) are processed to meet the ČSN ISO 17123 standards. However, standard methods for calibration of geodetic instruments do not include the procedures for testing of reflectorless distance measurement. IGMS VŠB-TU Ostrava has bought new total stations – Leica TCRP 1201 and TCRP 1202, Topcon GPT 7001 and GPT- 8203M. Each of these total stations provides, inter alia, the reflectorless distance measurement. During the calibration of the new total stations we proceeded to the research of distance measurement accuracy without the use of reflecting prisms at the telemetering base of IGMS in Ostrava-Krásné Pole.

  • Simulation of Sediment Transport in Catchment Using Arcswat 2005 Dynamic Erosion Model Exemplified by The Catchment of The Ostravice River

    Jozef Richnavský, Boris Šír, Peter Bobáľ, Jan Unucka

    Soil is one of the most important natural sources on earth. The same way as all parts of the environment, and the global ecosystem generally, it suffers from several kinds of human activities in the landscape. One of the most serious environmental problems of our present days is accelerated soil erosion and related processes. in the past, the most of soil erosion studies and researches took place in the field, on experimental plots or in laboratories. The problem of these studies is the fact that they take quite a long time and are expensive. Nowadays, in the age of computers and information technologies, the soil erosion and sediment transport studies can be managed by new effective tools – numerical models. There are lots of numerical models being able to solve several tasks in the field of soil erosion and sediments. One of the most complex numerical models is the SWAT model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool). This physically based semi-distributed model can be used to analyze the complex watershed management and soil erosion, and sediment transport is only a fraction of the tools offered by the model. The main goal of this contribution is to introduce the basic abilities of the model as a tool of soil erosion analyses and sediment transport in watersheds.

  • Finite Element Analysis of Stress Transfer in Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Magnesium Matrix Composites

    Sinian Li, Yang Wang, m. H. Rümmeli , Jaroslav Vlček, Jaromír Pištora, Michal Lesňák

    A simplified finite element model was established to simulate deformation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) reinforcing magnesium matrix composites during the tensile test. The stress and strain of matrix and reinforcement agent and the effect of interface on mechanical behaviour of composites were specially studied. The simulation results showed that for uniformly distributed CNTs a stress concentration occurs from the fibre axis towards the interface. The simulations proved that the destruction of the composites starts at the interface; what well coincides with the experimental results.

  • Analysis of Influence of Input Data, Method of Financing and Methods Used for Financial Evaluation of Investment

    Yveta Tomášková

    This paper focuses on the firms' approach to processing feasibility studies, especially the part related to the evaluation of an investment project efficiency. On a particular case it shows the influence of chosen method on the decision on acceptance or rejection of a project. It also points to other factors that may affect the result of project efficiency evaluation, particularly to unrealistically planned cash flows, poorly chosen discount rates, or ignorance of using the rules for taking inflation into account. Final findings unambiguously show the necessity of post-auditing as a means of verifying the correctness of input assumptions and finding the causes of deviations occurred. The presented conclusions can be generalized and even extraction of mineral resources is no exception.

  • Study of Biomass of Reynoutria Japonica as A Novel Biosorbent for Removal of Metals From Aqueous Solutions

    Iva Melčáková, Hedviga Horváthová

    In the present study, the sorption capacity of plant biomass has been studied; more precisely the ability of biomass of roots, stems and leaves of an invasive plant Reynoutria japonica to bind up Zn2+ ions from aqueous solutions. The results of this biosorption study revealed that the rate and extent of uptake were affected by pH level, contact time and initial metal concentration. The equilibrium sorption data for the metal system at pH 6.0 was described by the Langmuir isotherms model. The sorption equilibrium, when expressed by the Langmuir and Freundlich equations, indicated that the process was in compliance with the Langmuir isotherm, which showed the best match. The maximum uptake of metal ions was obtained at pH 6.0. The highest sorption capacity for Zn2+, qmax = 17 mg/g, was achieved using the biomass from leaves. Removal of Zn2+ with 1g/l biosorbent from leaves was almost 77%, when zinc present in low concentrations, whereas it was lower at higher concentrations. With higher biomass doses the removal efficiency of Zn2+ was high even at high initial concentrations of the metal.